Tyres are designed to support the weight of the vehicle, absorb road shocks, transmit traction, torque and braking forces to the road surface and maintain and change the direction of travel. To fulfill these four basic functions, tyres are made of resilient rubber and inflated with high-pressure air. The inner tube in a tyre is used for the maintenance of proper air pressure, but it alone cannot retain air pressure high enough to support vehicle load or cannot be durable enough to withstand damage or shocks

The carcass protects the inner tube inflated with high-pressure air and supports the vehicle load. Its thick rubber layer, which is attached to the part of the tire that contacts the road, can withstand exterior damage or wear. Tyre tread patterns are optimized to the safety and performance of targeted vehicles.

With growing demand for gentrified high-performance vehicles, a variety of tires with more complex functions and performance are now being developed.